Strings

Operators and functions for working with strings (str type) are described here.

Operators

Operator

Result

Description

str + str

str

Merges two strings.

* str

int

Returns the length of the string.

| str

str

This unary operator trims whitespace characters in the each line of the string.

str == str

bool

Returns true if the two strings are equal and false, otherwise.

str > str

bool

Returns true if the first string is greater than the second and false, otherwise.

str < str

bool

Returns true if the first string is less than the second and false, otherwise.

str != str

bool

Returns true if the two strings are not equal and false, otherwise.

str >= str

bool

Returns true if the first string is greater than or equal to the second and false, otherwise.

str <= str

bool

Returns true if the first line is less than or equal to the second and false, otherwise.

str = str

str

Assignment operator.

str = int

str

Converts an integer to a string and assigns it to a variable.

str = bool

str

Assigns "true" or "false".

str += str

str

Appends a string to a string variable.

str [ int ]

int

Sets/gets Unicode code by index.

Functions

bool(str s) bool

The bool function returns false if the string is empty, "0" or "false", otherwise, it returns true.

float(str s) float

The float function converts a string to a number of float type. If the string has the wrong format, an error is returned.

int(str s) int

The int function converts a string to an integer number. If the string has the wrong format, an error is returned.

Find(str s, str substr) int

The Find function returns the index of the first instance of substr in s, or -1 if substr is not present in s.

Format(str s, anytype args...) str

The Format function formats according to a s specifier and returns the resulting string. There are the following format verbs:

General

  • %v - the value in a default format

  • %% - a literal percent sign; consumes no value

bool

  • %t - the word true or false

int

  • %b - base 2

  • %c - the character represented by the corresponding Unicode code point

  • %d - base 10. This is the default format for int.

  • %o - base 8

  • %x - base 16, with lower-case letters for a-f

  • %X - base 16, with upper-case letters for A-F

  • %U - Unicode format: U+1234

float

  • %e - scientific notation, e.g. -1.234456e+78

  • %E - scientific notation, e.g. -1.234456E+78

  • %f - decimal point but no exponent, e.g. 123.456. You can specify the width and the precision like %[width].[precision]f - %8.2f, %.3f, %7f.

  • %g - %e for large exponents, %f otherwise. Precision is discussed below. This is the default format for float.

str

  • %s - the default format for strings

  • %x - base 16, lower-case, two characters per byte

  • %X - base 16, upper-case, two characters per byte

You can specify i-th argument in the format string like this - Format("%d %[1]d %[1]d", 10)

arr.int mya = {1,2,3}
time t
Format(`%s %v %v %g %6.2[4]f`, `ok`, mya, Now(t), 99.0 + 1.)

HasPrefix(str s, str prefix) bool

The HasPrefix function returns true if the string s begins with prefix.

HasSuffix(str s, str suffix) bool

The HasSuffix function returns true if the string s ends with suffix.

Left(str s, int i) str

The Left function extracts a given number of characters from the left side of the string s.

Lines(str s) arr.str

The Lines function slices s multi-line string into all substrings separated by new line. All substrings are returned as an array of strings.

Lower(str s) str

The Lower function converts a copy of s string to lower case and returns it.

Repeat(str s, int count) str

The Repeat function returns a new string consisting of count copies of the string s.

Replace(str s, str old, str new) str

The Replace function returns a copy of the string s with all old strings replaced by new string.

Split(str s, str sep) arr.str

The Split function slices s string into all substrings separated by sep string. All substrings are returned as an array of strings.

Substr(str s, int off, int length) str

The Substr function returns a substring of the string s with the specified offset and length.

TrimRight(str s, str cutset) str

The TrimRight function returns a substring of the string s, with all trailing Unicode code points contained in cutset removed.

TrimSpace(str s) str

The TrimSpace function returns a substring of the string s, with all leading and trailing white space removed.

Upper(str s) str

The Upper function converts a copy of s string to upper case and returns it.